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# Common Functionalities in R

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# Common Functionalities in R

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We have five types of objects in R to introduce for starters.

Types of objects :

1. Integer

2. Numeric

3. Character

4. Logical

5. Complex

Integer

It is a whole number like 1 , 52 ,896 ,25 etc. We create an integer object by join L with values as 1L , 2L , 10L etc. We can create integer object in this way-

a<-1L

a

Output :

[1] 1

class()

It is used to find data type of object.

class(a)

Output:

[1] “integer”

We can combine values in integer as –

x<-c(1L,2L)

x

Output:

[1] 1 2

You can check Environment window . An object x created which shows int [1:2] 1 2 . Where int means integer data type.

Errors :

When R did not find function it shows ERROR in Console window . As you can see in above snapshot.

We can also create integer object by following code :-

y<-1:5

y

You can see in Environment window here:

ls()

It shows list of objects stored in Environment window. Here , it shows objects “a” and “b”

str()

It shows structure of an object . Structure means data type and values of object.

It shows structure of object “x” .

We can also show structure of all objects stored in Environment window .

ls.str()

It shows structure of objects “a” and “x”.

rm()

It can remove object from Environment window .

rm(a)

You can check Environment window . It does not show “a” object .

We can remove all objects from window by using this command :

rm(list=ls())

It shows Environment window is empty.

Numeric

It contains both decimal and whole data . It includes values like 4 ,4.2 etc. It is default data type to store number in R.

x =12.5

x

Output:

[1] 12.5

We check data type of x by using following code :

class(x)

[1] “numeric”

We combine multiple values to store in an object as :

v<-c(4,2,5)

We check data type of “v” as –

q()

To terminate the current R session . We can quit current session using following code :

quit()

or

q()

It will open Quit R Session window as:

Save file :

You can save Script file as :

You can click on Save As…

It will open this window to save file .

To save file as “Day 1 R.R” . Enter File name as:-

File name – Day 1 R.R

Then click on Save to save file.

Character

A character object is used to represent string values in R. A character object created by enter values in quotes(”) or double quotes(“”) .

You can run following code to create character object :

You can also create character object of number as –

x<-“13.9”

x

Output :

[1] “13.9”

y<-c(“1″,”A”,”s1″)

y

Logical

It stores value in TRUE and FALSE.

We can create logical data type by using following code :

s<-TRUE

s

Output :

[1] TRUE

We also checked class of object “s” .

We can combine multiple values also. In below code , T represents TRUE and F represents FALSE

Complex

It is a combination of real and imaginary value . It is in the form of x+iy. Where “x” and “y” are real numbers and “i” shows imaginary number. You can create complex number by following code :-

Inf value

When we divide  1 by 0 . Then , it represent infinity value.

c<-1/0

c

Output :

[1] Inf

NaN value

NaN means Not A Number . The following example represent the same –

c<-0/0

c

Output :

[1] NaN