User defined functions in R

**User defined functions in R:**

We can create user defined function by using **function() **.

We create a function object as:

function_name<- function(argument) {

#Function Body

}

The different parts of a function are –

**Function Name **– This is the actual name of the function . It is stored as an object in R.

**Arguments** – It is use as a placeholder. When a function is invoked , you pass a value to the argument. Arguments can be optional .

**Function Body** – The function body contains a collection of statements that defines what the function does.

**Return Value** – The return value of a function is the last expression in the function body to be evaluated.

We create a function name “**f**” which is used to calculate square of a number.

*f <- function(x,y){*

* x^2*

*}*

**f** stores structure of function .

We can called function by passing parameters in to it.

We want to find square of 2. We pass the value as argument to the function.

*f(2)*

Similarly , we find square of number -3 .

*f(-3)*

We create a new function “f” which print two numbers .

*add <- function(x,y){*

* x+y*

*}*

We call function add with two parameters .

*add(4,5)*

We create a function to select observation on base of condition.

Here , we select only those observation where vector **x** values greater than **n**.

*above <- function(x, n){*

* sub <- x > n*

* x[sub]*

*}*

*a <- c(2,3,4,6,11,22,4,56,6)*

We call function on vector “a” . We want to show values in “a” greater than 4.

*above(a,4)*

We are providing **n=5** value in function argument .

*x <- 1:10*

*above <- function(x, n= 5){ *

* sub <- x > n*

* x[sub]*

*}*

We invoked **above** function as :

*above(x)*

It shows values greater than 5.

We create function to find means of each column of y . We use for loop to find means of all columns of y.

*colmean <- function(y){*

* nc <- ncol(y)*

* means <- as.numeric()*

* for(i in 1: nc){*

* means[i] <- mean(y[,i])*

* }*

* means*

*}*

We want to find means of each column of airquality dataset.

*colmean(airquality)*

We create a character vector “**names1**” .

names1 <- c(“Dave”, “John”, “Ann”, “Roger”, “Bill”, “Kathy”)

Here , we are using break statement to stop loop when name equal to “**Roger**” . We use for loop to go through all elements of x . We use if to check if name equals to “**Roger**” . If the condition is TRUE then the loop is break .

f.names <- function(x) {

for(name in x){

if(name==”Roger”)

break

print(name)

}

}

We call function by passing argument as names1 . So , it shows three names.

*f.names(names1)*

We create a simple function to create two new variables z1 and z2 . We use list() to store z1 and z2 as result1 and result2 lists.

*f4 <- function(x=3, y=2) {*

* z1 <- x + y*

* z2 <- x + 2*y*

* list(result1=z1, result2=z2)*

*}*

We called function in different forms as :

f4()

Here , we called function by default parameters . So, here x=3 and y=2 .

*f4(1, )$result1*

We called function with x=1 and y=2 as default parameter . We only want to see result1 value.

*f4(x=1)$result1*

We called function with x=1 and y=2 as default parameter . We only want to see result1 value.

*f4(, 1)$result1*

We called function with x=3 as default parameter and y=1 . We only want to see result1 value.

*f4(y=1)$result1*

We called function with x=3 as default parameter and y=1 . We only want to see result1 value.

f4(y = 1, x = 2)$result2

We called function with x=2 and y=1 . We only want to see result2 value.